Father Francis P. Duffy
In the photo below, men are wearing masks designed to forestall the devastating effects of the poisonous gas first used on battlefields during the “Great War.” The number of variations suggests how difficult it was to neutralize the effects of the gas.
Duffy described the effects of gas on the troops:
The men were prompt in putting on their masks as soon as the presence of gas was recognized, but it was found impossible to keep them on indefinitely and at the same time keep up the defense of the sector. By about midnight some of the men were sick as a result of the gas, and as the night wore on, one after another they began to feel its effects on their eyes, to cry, and gradually to go blind, so that by dawn a considerable number ... were sitting by the Luneville road, completely blinded, and waiting their turn at an ambulance. --Duffy, Father Duffy's Story, 1919
What Do the Details Tell Us?
Outdoor Monuments of Manhattan: A Historical Guide has a long discussion of the details of Duffy (the book, the pins on his collar, the helmet, etc.), and how those details affect our interpretation of the man represented.
Keck (1875-1951) a native New Yorker, was a student of Augustus Saint Gaudens and Philip Martiny. He studied in Greece, Florence and Paris. His notable works include Stonewall Jackson and Lewis and Clark in Charlottesville, Virginia, and Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama.
Manhattan has Letters and Science flanking the entrance to Columbia University, 1915 and 1925 (116th Street and Broadway), Father Duffy, 1937, Governor Alfred E. Smith with an accompanying relief, 1946 (Catherine Street between Monroe and Cherry), and Abraham Lincoln, 1948 (Madison Avenue near 133rd Street).
Brooklyn has the the Genius of Islam, 1900 (Brooklyn Museum), the 61st District War Memorial, 1922 (Greenwood Playground), and the Brooklyn War Memorial, 1951 (Cadman Plaza).
War Memorials in Manhattan
Manhattan memorials to soldiers, police, and firefighters are discussed in detail, with scads of illustrations, in Dianne L. Durante’s From Portraits to Puddles: New York Memorials from the Civil War to the World Trade Center Memorial (Reflecting Absence). Illustrated in Duffy:
Copyright (c) 2013 Dianne L. Durante